This next-generation attack submarine will provide the Navy with the capabilities required to maintain the nation’s undersea supremacy well into the 21st century. Virginia-class submarines will have enhanced stealth, sophisticated surveillance capabilities, and special warfare enhancements that will enable them to meet the Navy’s multi-mission requirements.
The future USS Indiana will have the capability to attack targets ashore with highly accurate Tomahawk cruise missiles and conduct covert long-term surveillance of land area, littoral waters or other sea-based forces. Other missions include anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare; mine delivery and minefield mapping. It is also designed for special forces delivery and support.
SSN 789 will be built at Huntington Ingalls Industries-Newport News Shipbuilding in Newport News, Va., will be 7,800-tons and 377 feet in length, have a beam of 34 feet and operate at more than 25 knots submerged. It is designed with a reactor plant that will not require refueling during the planned life of the ship, reducing lifecycle costs while increasing underway time.
Virginia-class submarines are built under a unique teaming arrangement between General Dynamics Electric Boat and Huntington Ingalls Industries-Newport News.
The third battleship to be named in honor of the State of Indiana was laid down on 20 November 1939 at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company Newport News, Virginia. Two years and a day later 20 November 1941 the vessel was launched in a brilliant pre-war ceremony with Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox giving the keynote address.Serving as sponsor for the new battleship was Mrs. Lewis C. Robbins, daughter of Indiana's Governor, Henry F. Schricker.
While INDIANA was being fitted out, the Japanese struck their treacherous blow at Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941), which temporarily eliminated almost all of the U.S. Navy's heavy striking power. The emergency was at hand! USS INDIANA s completion was hurried even more, and on 30 April 1942 she was commissioned with Captain Aaron Stanton Merrill, USN, as her first commanding officer. From her foremast fluttered the old National Ensign that BB-1 had flown when she steamed into battle at Santiago, Cuba during the Spanish-American War.
When commissioned the second of the South Dakota Class battleships displaced 35,000 tons; was 680' in length; had a beam of 108'2"; drew 29'3" of water; could make 27 knots of speed; was manned by 2,109 officers and men; was armed with 9 16" guns, 20 5" guns, 24 40 mm guns (later increased to 48) and 16 20 mm guns (later increased to 52); could carry 7,340 tons of fuel oil, 188 tons of diesel oil, 22 tons of gasoline, 341 tons of reserve feed water, and 439 tons of potable water; and had an endurance of 17,450 nautical miles at a cruising speed of 15 knots or 6,400 nautical miles at a speed at 25 knots.
The Japanese had quickly advanced through the Philippines, other Pacific islands, and in Asia, expanding their ill-fated empire, while the United States steadily recovered. During this period INDIANA had her outfitting and arming completed and conducted her shakedown cruise in the Casco Bay, Maine area. Gunnery exercises were among the most important features of the intensive training with every gun mount, from the 16-inch rifles of the main batteries to the 20mm mounts of the anti-aircraft guns being given considerable workout.
Fully laden with ammunition and supplies, USS INDIANA churned out of Hampton Roads, Virginia on 9 November 1942 enroute to Tongatabu Island via the Panama Canal. The vessel dropped anchor in Nukualofa Harbor, Tongatabu, Tonga Islands and reported for duty with the Pacific Fleet on 28 November, joining Rear Admiral Lee's Carrier Screenig Force 28. For the next 11 months, Indiana helped protect carriers Enterprise and Saratoga, then supporting American advances in the Solomons. At this time the U.S. Navy was at a low in the Pacific with only the battleships USS WASHINGTON, USS SOUTH DAKOTA, and now USS INDIANA, along with the aircraft carriers USS SARATOGA and USS ENTERPRISE carrying the burden of the Pacific war.
These major ships, plus a few cruisers and destroyers protected the American landings on Guadalcanal. There was never a battle for the INDIANA group, only a constant threat of one, with the Jap Fleet feinting and dodging, but never clashing with this group. Earlier in this campaign, however, the enemy had struck another hard blow. A group of Jap cruisers and destroyers approached Guadalcanal undetected, and had smashed an Allied cruiser force there, sinking HMAS CANBERRA, USS ASTORIA, USS QUINCY, and USS VINCENNES, in what is now know as the First Battle of Savo Island.
INDIANA supported the Rennell Island operation on 29-30 January 1943 and from February to May 1943 she operated from Noumea, New Caledonia, guarding against the Japanese threat in the South Pacific and engaging in training exercises. During June and part of July the ship operated with Task Group 36.3 in support of the New Georgia campaign..
During this period, the addition of USS MASSACHUSETTS and USS ALABAMA from the Atlantic; USS NORTH CAROLINA from Pearl Harbor, and the first of the new aircraft carriers, culminated in the forming of Task Force 58. INDIANA departed from Noumea on 31 July 1943, enroute to Pearl Harbor, arriving there on 9 August. Here Task Force 58 prepared for the Marcus Island raid. Departing Pearl Harbor on 21 August, the force with the Carriers Yorktown, Essex, and Independence launched the Marcus Island raid on the 31st. Following this raid INDIANA returned to Pearl Harbor, where she was drydocked for 16 days.
On 21 October 1943 she left Pearl Harbor with the support forces designated for the invasion of the Gilbert Islands, arriving in the Fiji Islands on 07 November 1943.
Four days later, however, the battleship was again underway, with rear Admiral Lee now Commander, Battleships, Pacific, in company with other units of BatDivs 8 and 9. On the 16th, the battlewagons and their screens joined. Rear Admiral C. A. "Baldy" Pownall's TG 50.1, Rear Admiral Pownall flying his two-starred flag in Yorktown (CV-10), the namesake of the carrier lost at Midway. The combined force then proceeded toward the Gilbert Islands to join in the daily bombings of Japanese positions in the Gilberts and Marshalls- softening them up for impending assault. On the 19th, the planes from TG 50.1 attacked Mili and Jaluit in the Marshalls, continuing those strikes through 20 November, the day upon which Navy, Marine, and Army forces landed on Tarawa and Makin in the Gilberts. On the 22d, the task group sent its planes against Mili in successive waves; subsequently, the group steamed to operate north of Makin.
It was at Tarawa that she got her baptism of fire. She was with the northern group of our forces, near Makin Island, when enemy torpedo bombers from the Marshalls attacked. They came in at dusk from the east, leaving the ships of the task force silhouetted against the western sun, and against flares that other Japs had dropped. The torpedo planes came in low, just off the water, with INDIANA s guns sending up a terrific barrage. She made her first kill when one of the enemy planes made the mistake of coming too close to her.
Indiana rendezvoused with other carrier groups that composed TF 50 on 25 November and, during the reorganization that followed, was assigned to TG 50.4, the fast carrier task group under the command of Rear Admiral Frederick C. "Ted" Sherman. The carriers comprising the core of the group were Bunker Hill (CV-17) and Monterey (CVL-26); the battleships screening them were Alabama (BB-60), South Dakota (BB-57) in addition to the the Indiana. Eight destroyers rounded out the screen.
The group operated north of Makin, providing air, surface, and antisubmarine protection for the unfolding unloading operations at Makin, effective on 26 November. Enemy planes attacked the group on the 27th and 28th but were driven off without inflicting any damage on the fast carrier task forces.
As the Gilbert Islands campaign drew to a close, TG 50.8 was formed on 6 December 1943, under Rear Admiral Lee, in Washington. Other ships of that group included North Carolina (BB-55), Massachusetts (BB-59), Indiana (BB-58), South Dakota (BB-57), and Alabama (BB-60) and the Fleet carriers Bunker Hill and Monterey. Eleven destroyers screened the heavy ships. The group first steamed south and west of Ocean Island to take position for the scheduled air and surface bombardment of the island of Nauru, the rich little phosphate island the Japs had stolen from the British. Before dawn on 8 December, the carriers launched their strike groups while the bombardment force formed in column; 135 rounds of 16-inch fire from the six battleships fell on the enemy installations on Nauru; and, upon completion of the shelling, the battleships secondary batteries took their turn; two planes from each battleship spotted the fall of shot. After a further period of air strikes had been flown off against Nauru, the task group sailed for Efate, where they arrived on 12 December. On that day, due to a change in the highest command echelons, TF 57 became TF 37.
On 19 January 1944 the battleship, along with the rest of the task group, put to sea to make rendezvous with elements of TF 58, the fast carrier task force under the overall command of Vice Admiral Marc A. "Pete" Mitscher. Becoming part of TG 58.1, Indiana screened the fast carriers in her group as they launched air strikes on Taroa and Kwajalein in the waning days of January 1944. Indiana, together with Massachusetts and Washington; left the formation with four destroyers as screen and shelled Kwajalein Atoll on the 30th. Further air strikes followed the next day.
The only serious damage to the Indiana during lengthy operations with the fast carrier task force resulted from a collision with the Battleship Washington during the Marshall Islands campaign, when the Indiana turned in front of the Washington during darken-ship conditions while maneuvering prior to morning refueling operations. At 0429 on 01 Feb 1944, the Washington hit the Indiana on the starboard quarter at frame 107 at an angle of about 26 degrees. Damage to the Indiana extended down from the main deck to the turn of the bilge through the three outer shells, aft to frame 142, and on the main deck from frame 103 to frame 165. A total of 14 voids were flooded and 13 fuel tanks damaged. The starboard outboard shaft was damaged beyond repair and the inboard screw on the starboard side was damaged. Power and degaussing cables were severed, and severe structural damage to interior longitudinal bulkheads within the side protective system extended from frame 106 to 130. Shell plating was dished in between the second and third decks and severely ruptured above the second deck. The starboard range-finder hood and the range finder on the after main-battery turret were damaged, two 40 mm quadruple mounts and fourteen 20 mm single mounts were destroyed, and two 20 mm mounts were damaged. The starboard catapult and an OS2U-3 seaplane were lost. The resulting starboard list was corrected by flooding port voids. Three men were killed and one was injured. Both ships, escorted by four destroyers, sailed to Majuro Lagoon at six knots, arriving on 02 Feb for temporary repairs.When morning came the ship slipped into Majuro Lagoon, which had been taken from the Japanese just 48 hours before. After temporary repairs had been made, she stood out of the lagoon on 7 February, enroute to Pearl Harbor. INDIANA limped to Pearl Harbor, arriving there on the 13th and she went into the Navy Yard for repairs.
The damage sustained by the Indiana occurred at the most vulnerable location within the armored citadel length. Indeed, a detailed vulnerability study conducted early in 1945 concluded that, if the unprotected stern were riddled, flooding the third deck area between bulkheads 113 and 128 ½ would probably result in a South Dakota-class battleship sinking by the stern. This is precisely the area were the Indiana was hit by the Washington. In this instance the Indiana's holding bulkhead remained intact and the ship's longitudinal stability was not jeopardized, However, it appears that a very similar collision, involving damage to the stern as well as this critical compartment, possibly would have been sufficient to cause the ship to sink.
Repairs completed Indiana rejoined famed Task Force 58 for the Truk raid 29-30 April 1944 and bombarded Ponape Island 01 May. In June the battlewagon proceeded to the Marianas with a giant American fleet for the invasion of that strategic group. Indiana supported the air strikes pummeling enemy defenses in the Marianas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Rota, and Pagan. Task Force 58's fliers also attacked twice and damaged a Japanese convoy in the vicinity on 12 June. The following day, Vice Admiral Lee's battleship-destroyer task group was detached from the main body of the force and conducted shore bombardment against enemy installations on Saipan and Tinian. Relieved on the 14th by two task groups under Rear Admirals J. B. Oldendorf and W. L. Ainsworth, Vice Admiral Lee's group retired momentarily. On 16 June, Admiral Mitscher's TF 58 planes bombed Japanese installations on Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands and Chichi Jima and Haha Jima in the Bonins. Meanwhile, marines landed on Saipan under cover of intensive naval gunfire and carrier-based planes. That same day, Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa, commanding the main body of the Japanese Fleet, was ordered to attack and destroy the invasion force in the Marianas. The departure of his carrier group, however, came under the scrutiny of the submarine Redfin (SS-272), as it left Tawi Tawi, the westernmost island in the Sulu Archipelago. Flying Fish (SS-229) also sighted Ozawa's force as it entered the Philippine Sea. Cavalla (SS-244) radioed a contact report on an enemy refueling group on 16 June and continued tracking it as it headed for the Marianas. She again sighted Japanese Combined Fleet units on 18 June.
Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, commanding the 5th Fleet, had meanwhile learned of the Japanese movement and accordingly issued his battle plan. Vice Admiral Lee's force formed a protective screen around the vital fleet carriers. Washington, six other battleships, four heavy cruisers, and 14 destroyers deployed to cover the flattops; on 19 June, the ships came under attack from Japanese carrier-based and land-based planes as the Battle of the Philippine Sea commenced. On 19 June the deluge came, with Task Force 58 under air attack almost continuously. Each ship was sending up a seemingly impenetrable curtain of anti-aircraft fire, but the Japs came on. INDIANA's gunners shot the wing off an enemy plane coming in on the ship from her port quarter and it plunged into the sea near her.
SOUTH DAKOTA took a bomb hit on her superstructure and SAN FRANCISCO was smoking from a near miss. However, the Japs were paying a terrific price as plane after plane plunged into the ocean from the task forces combined fire and the combat air patrols.
An enemy torpedo plane came on through INDIANA s concentrated fire and dropped a torpedo, which looked like a sure hit on her starboard side. The plane was downed by the ship s guns but the torpedo came on. Quick1y, INDIANA s guns opened up on the torpedo, which exploded only 50 yards from her side.
Another Jap came too close to INDIANA's accurate fire and went down before her guns. Just after noon, an enemy plane dropped a bomb or torpedo which exploded in her wake. Her gunner s then shot the plane s tail off and it spiraled into the sea. Almost at the samc time, another Jap approached on the starboard beam. When it was 100 yards off, It caught fire, swerved up, then dived down and crashed into the battleship s side. Debris scattered over INDIANA s decks, but the only result of this crash was a small dent in the ship's plating.
Following another bomb explosion astern, no other enemy planes penetrated the task force s fighter cover, which shot down one entire raid of 15 enemy planes. There were only five casualties aboard, but all were minor shrapnell wounds.
The tremendous firepower of the screen, however, together with the aggressive combat air patrols flown from the American carriers, proved too much for even the aggressive Japanese. The heavy loss of Japanese aircraft, sometimes referred to as the "Marianas Turkey Shoot," caused serious losses in the Japanese naval air arm. During four massive raids, the enemy launched 373 planes-only 130 returned. In addition, 50 land-based bombers from Guam fell in flames. Over 930 American carrier planes were involved in the aerial action; their losses amounted to comparatively few: 29 shot down and six lost operationally without the loss of a single ship in Mitscher's task force.
Only a few of the enemy planes managed to get through the barrage of flak and fighters, one scoring a direct hit on South Dakota-killing 27 and wounding 29. A bomb burst over the flight deck of the carrier Wasp (CV-18), killing one man, wounding 12, and covering her flight deck with bits of phosphorus. Two planes dove on Bunker Hill, one scoring a near miss and the other a hit that holed an elevator, knocking out the hanger deck gasoline system temporarily; killing three and wounding 79. Several fires started were promptly quenched. In addition, Minneapolis (CA-36) and the INDIANA also received slight damage.
Not only did the Japanese lose heavily in planes; two of their carriers were soon on their way to the bottom-Taiho, torpedoed and sunk by Albacore (SS-218); and Shokaku, sunk by Cavalla. Admiral Ozawa, his flagship, Taiho, sunk out from under him, transferred his flag to Zuikaku. (With the sinking of Shokaku, Zuikaku became the last of the six carriers that attacked Pearl Harbor to remain afloat. The first four, Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, and Hityu, were sunk at the battle of Midway. Zuikaku will survive until sacrificed as a diversion at the battle of Leyte Gulf, 25 Oct., 1944.) As the Battle of the Philippine Sea proceeded to a close, the Japanese Mobile Fleet steamed back to its bases, defeated. Admiral Mitscher's task force meanwhile retired to cover the invasion operations proceeding in the Marianas. Indiana fueled east of that chain of islands and then continued her screening duties with TG 58.4 to the south and west of Saipan, supporting the continuing air strikes on islands in the Marianas, the strikes concentrated on Guam by that point.
On 25 July, aircraft of TG 58.4 conducted air strikes on the Palaus and on enemy shipping in the vicinity, continuing their schedule of strikes through 6 August. On that day, Indiana, with Iowa (BB-61), Washington, Alabama, the light cruiser Birmingham (CL-62), and a destroyer screen, was detached from the screen of TG 58.4, forming TG 58.7, under Vice Admiral Lee.INDIANA, steaming with Task Force 58, remained at sea for 64 days during the Marianas operation, conducting air strikes until Saipan, Guam, and Tinian were secured. The Task Group arrived at Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshalls to refuel and replenish on 11 August and remained there for almost the balance of the month. On 30 August, that group departed, headed for, first, the Admiralty Islands, and ultimately, the Palaus.
In August 1944 the battleship began operations as a unit of Task Group 38.3, bombarding the Palau's, and later the Philippines. She screened strikes on enemy shore installations 12-30 September 1944, helping to prepare for the coming invasion of Leyte.
After two years of high speed operation, INDIANA was in dire need of basic repairs. The ship put in at Manus and then steamed to Bremerton, Washington, docking at the U.S. Navy Yard on 23 October. After her overhaul had been completed, INDIANA churned out of Bremerton on 6 December 1944 enroute to Pearl Harbor.
Upon arriva1 at Pearl Harbor on 12 December 1944, the battleship conducted training exercises for nine days, and on 10 January 1945 she stood out of Pearl Harbor enroute to bombard Iwo Jima via Eniwetok and Saipan. At Saipan she was joined by three cruisers and on the 24th January the force bombarded Iwo Jima. The only opposition encountered was two enemy planes, one of which was shot down.
Anchoring at Ulithi on 26 January, Indiana rejoined Task Force 58 and on 10 February she sortied with the 5th Fleet for the Iwo Jima operation, the next step on the island road to Japan. While the U.S. Marincs landed on Iwo Jima the fleet stood between the landings and Japan, protecting them from any surprise counter-attack the enemy might plan.
On 16 February 1945, the task force approached the Japanese coast under cover of adverse weather conditions and achieved complete tactical surprise. As a result, they shot down 322 enemy planes and destroyed 177 more on the ground, Japanese shipping -- both naval and merchant -- suffered drastically, too, as did hangars and aircraft installations. Moreover, all this damage to the enemy had cost the American Navy only 49 planes.
The task force moved to Iwo Jima on 17 February to provide direct support for the landings slated to take place on that island on the 19th. It revisited Tokyo on the 25th and, the next day, hit the island of Hachino off the coast of Honshu. During these raids, besides causing heavy damage or ground facilities, the American planes sent five small vessels to the bottom and destroyed 158 planes.
On 1 March, reconnaissance planes flew over the island of Okinawa, taking last minute intelligence photographs to be used in planning the assault on that island. The next day, cruisers from TF 58 shelled Okino Daito Shima in training for the forthcoming operation. The force then retired to Ulithi for replenishment. Indiana's task force stood out of Ulithi on 14 March, bound for Japan. The mission of that group was to eliminate airborne resistance from the Japanese homeland to American forces off Okinawa. Enemy fleet units at Kure and Kobe, on southern Honshu, reeled under the impact of the explosive blows delivered by TF 58's airmen. On 18 and 19 March, from a point 100 miles southwest of Kyushu, TF 58 hit enemy airfields on that island. These devastating strikes did much to aid the ground campaign and lower Japanese morale at home. During this period she often repelled enemy suicide plane attacks as the Japanese tried desperately but vainly to stem the mounting tide of defeat; the ship once destroyed three aircraft making a simultaneous attack on her.However, the Japanese drew blood during that action when kamikazes crashed into Franklin (CV-17) on the 19th and seriously damaged that fleet carrier.
That afternoon, the task force retired from Kyushu, screening the blazing and battered flattop. In doing so, the screen downed 48 attackers. At the conclusion of the operation, the force felt that it had achieved its mission of prohibiting any large-scale resistance from the air to the slated landings on Okinawa.
On the 24th, Indiana trained her 16-inch rifles on targets ashore on Okinawa. Together with the other battlewagons of the task force, she pounded Japanese positions and installations in preparation for the landings. Although fierce, Japanese resistance was doomed to fail by dwindling numbers of aircraft and trained pilots to man them. In addition, the Japanese fleet, steadily hammered by air attacks from 5th Fleet aircraft, found itself confronted by a growing, powerful, and determined enemy. On 17 April, the undaunted enemy battleship Yamato, with her 18.1-inch guns, sortied to attack the American invasion fleet off Okinawa. Met head-on by a swarm of carrier planes, Yamato, the light cruiser Yahagi, and four destroyers went to the bottom, the victims of massed air power. Never again would the Japanese fleet present a major challenge to the American fleet in the war in the Pacific.
While TF 58's planes were off dispatching Yamato and her consorts to the bottom of the South China Sea, enemy aircraft struck back at American surface units. Combat air patrols (CAP) knocked down 15 enemy planes, and ships' gunfire accounted for another three, but not before one kamikaze penetrated the CAP and screen to crash on the flight deck of the fleet carrier Hancock (CV-19). On 11 April, the "Divine Wind" renewed its efforts; and only drastic maneuvers and heavy barrages of gunfire saved the task force. None of the fanatical pilots achieved any direct hits, although near-misses, close aboard, managed to cause some minor damage. Combat air patrols bagged 17 planes, and ships' gunfire accounted for an even dozen. The next day, 151 enemy aircraft committed hara-kiri into TF 58, but Indiana, bristling with 5-inch, 40-millimeter and 20- millimeter guns, together with other units of the screens for the vital carriers, kept the enemy at bay or destroyed him before he could reach his targets.
Over the days that ensued, American task force planes hit Japanese facilities and installations in the enemy's homeland. Kamikazes, redoubling their efforts, managed to crash into three carriers on successive days -- Intrepid (CV-11), Bunker Hill (CV- 17), and Enterprise (CV-6).
On 05 June the U.S. fleet off Okinawa was hit by a typhoon that damaged 33 ships, including battleships, carriers, cruisers, and destroyers. The typhoon arrived about midnight, at 0500 hours it was raining horizontally at 138 miles per hour, with a barometer reading of 28.29 inches - 986.0 millibars, and with a record roll of 26 degrees. One destroyer reported rolling badly (30 degrees), the Pittsburgh lost it's bow, the Duluth sprung a bow leak, and the Hornet the forward corners of it's flight deck. The Indiana lost steering control for 35 minutes and one main engine lost power, but she rode out the storm with only minor topside structural damage, one OS2U torn off the catapult and continued operations and sailed to San Pedro Bay, Philippines, 13 June 1945.
Indiana departed Leyte on 1 July, supporting the carriers of Task Group 38.1 which attacked the Tokyo area on the 10th. The battleship and her consorts sailed once more for Japanese home waters for carrier air strikes on the enemy's heartland. Nine days later, carrier planes from TF 38 destroyed 72 enemy aircraft on the ground and smashed industrial sites in the Tokyo area. So little was the threat from the dwindling Japanese air arm that the Americans made no attempt whatever to conceal the location of their armada which was operating off her shores with impunity. On 14 July, as part of a bombardment group, she participated in the shelling of the Kamaishi Steel Works, Kamaishi, Honshu, Japan. This was the first gunfire attack on the Japanese home islands by heavy warships. From 15 through 28 July, Indiana again supported the carriers as they launched strikes against Honshu and Hokkaido.
On the 29 July, she participated in the shore bombardment of Hamamatsu, Honshu. By that point in the war, Allied warships were able to shell the Japanese homeland almost at will. Task Force 38's planes subsequently blasted the Japanese naval base at Yokosuka, and put one of the two remaining Japanese battleships -- the former fleet flagship Nagato out of action. On 24 and 25 July, American carrier planes visited the Inland Sea region, blasting enemy sites on Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku. Kure then again came under attack. Six major fleet units were located there and badly damaged, marking the virtual end of Japanese sea power. Over the weeks that ensued, TF 38 continue its raids on Japanese industrial facilities, airfields, and merchant and naval shipping.
On 9 August, the Indiana again shelled Kamaishi. The battleship supported the carriers in strikes against northern Honshu on 10 August, and in the Tokyo area on the 13th and 15th. The latter was the last strike of the war for, later that day, Japan capitulated. On 30 August she assisted in landing U.S. occupation forces, including a landing force of 238 sailors and 76 marines from the complement of the Indiana, at Yokosuka Naval Base in Tokyo Bay, where the Japanese formal surrender took place on 02 September. The veteran battleship, as part of the occupying force, arrived in Tokyo Bay 05 September, three days after the formal surrender occured on board the battleship Missouri (BB-63). Nine days later the Indiana sailed for San Francisco, where she arrived 29 September; the first ship back from Tokyo Bay.
On her arrival in the United States, INDIANA had steamed 234,888 mIles, consuned 36,432,000 gallons of fuel oil, and had used 77 million gallons of water since her commissioning.
For the first post-war Navy Day (27 October 1945) celebration, INDIANA remained at San Francisco, where visitors came aboard in droves to inspect the veteran battleship.
INDIANA moved to the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 31 October where she was subjected to a major overhaul. She was placed "in commission in reserve" in the Bremerton Group of the Pacific Reserve Fleet on 11 September 1946 and on 11 September 1947 her status was changed to "in service in reserve." The last of her Class to be decommissioned.
On 26 July 1954 the Chairman of the Ship Characteristics Board requested a preliminary design of BB-57 class conversions to increase speed. Examination of fast task force operations indicated that the South Dakota class was admirably suited for such major fleet service in every regard but speed. As the main-battery armament was considered greatly in excess of requirements, it was proposed to remove the after turret, thereby providing hull volume for added machinery. It was desired to increase the maximum speed to approximately 31 knots. The Bureau of Ships reported on its investigations of the proposed conversions of the South Dakota class on 14 September 1954. It was calculated that 256,000 shaft horsepower would be necessary for a speed of 31 knots. The internal location of the main side belt armor precluded the removal of the side armor. In order to obtain this massive increase in power, it would have been necessary to install a vastly improved steam propulsion plant or to utilize a plant with gas turbines for boost power, using the existing 130,000 SHP plant for normal operations. Such added power would have forced a redesign of the after hull form, in order to obtain reasonable water flow to the propellers for satisfactory propulsive efficiency, as well as to prevent vibration induced by the skegs. Furthermore, larger propellers would have been required, along with the relocation and modification of shaft bearings, skegs, struts, stern tubes, rudders, and the steering gear. Such major conversions were estimated to cost some $40,000,000 per ship, exclusive of activation expenses, and expenses related to the upgrading or repair of electronics and combat systems. The proposed conversions were abandoned.
Indiana was stricken from the Navy List 01 June 1962, sold for scrap for $418,387 on 06 Sep 1963, and scrapped in 1964.
Indiana's mast is erected at the Indiana University at Bloomington; her anchor rests at Fort Wayne; and other relics are on display in various museums and schools throughout the State. Teak planks from the main deck were used to construct a desk and presented to the then Governor of Indiana and has been used by all subsequent governors.
Indiana (BB 50) was laid down by the New York Navy Yard 01 November 1920, but her construction was canceled 08 February 1922 in accordance with the terms of the Washington Treaty for Naval Limitation.
The first Indiana (BB 1) was laid down 07 May 1891 by William Cramp & Son, Philadelphia; launched 28 February 1893; sponsored by Miss Jessie Miller, daughter of Attorney General of the United States; and commissioned 20 November 1895, Captain Robley D. Evans in Command.
When commissioned, the first battleship (BB 01) displaced 10,288 tons; was 350'11" in length; had a beam of 69'3"; drew 24' of water; could make 15 knots of speed; was manned by 473 officers and men; and was armed with 4 13" guns, 8 8" guns, 4 6"guns, 20 6-pounders, and 6 1-pounders.
Following fitting out at Philadelphia Navy, Indiana trained off the coast of New England. This duty continued until the outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898, when Indiana formed part of Admiral Sampson's squadron. The ten ships sailed south to intercept Cervera's Spanish Squadron, known to be en route to the Caribbean. Indiana took part in bombardment of San Juan 12 May 1898, and returned to Key West with the squadron to guard Havana 18 May. After it was discovered that Cervera was at Santiago, Sampson joined Schley there 1 June and took up the blockade.
In late June 1898, Army units arrived and were landed for an assault on Santiago. Cervera saw that his situation was desperate and began his gallant dash out of Santiago 03 July 1898, hoping to outrun the American blockaders. Indiana did not join in the initial chase because of her extreme eastern position on the blockade, but was near the harbor entrance when destroyers Pluton and Furor emerged. In a short time both ships were destroyed by Indiana's guns and those of the other ships. Meanwhile the remaining Spanish vessels were sunk or run ashore, in one of the two major naval engagements of the war.
Indiana returned to her previous pattern of training exercises and fleet maneuvers after the war, and made practice cruises for midshipmen of the Naval Academy before decommissioning 29 December 1903.
The battleship was recommissioned at New York Navy Yard 09 January 1906. During this phase of her career, Indiana served with the Naval Academy Practice Squadron, sailing to Northern Europe and the Mediterranean. At Queenstown, Ireland, she fired a 21-gun salute 22 June 1911 in honor of the coronation of King George V. This important work in training the Navy's future leaders ended in 1914 and she was decommissioned at Philadelphia 23 May 1914.
Indiana was recommissioned a second time 24 May 1917, and served through World War I as a training ship for gun crews off Tomkinsville, NY, and in the York River, VA. She was decommissioned at Philadelphia 31 January 1919. The name Indiana was canceled 29 March 1919 and she was reclassified Coastal Battleship Number 1 so that the name could be assigned to a newly authorized battleship. She was used as a target in an important series of tests designed to determine the effectiveness of aerial bombs and was sunk in November 1920. Her hulk was sold for scrap 19 March 1924.